David Myers Psichologija 2008 19.pdf: The Best Textbook for Introductory Psychology
David Myers Psichologija 2008 19.pdf: A Comprehensive Review
If you are interested in learning more about psychology, you might have come across a book called David Myers Psichologija 2008 19.pdf. This is a Lithuanian translation of the ninth edition of Psychology, a popular textbook written by David G. Myers, an American psychologist and professor at Hope College. In this article, we will review this book and discuss its main features, strengths, and weaknesses. We will also provide some recommendations for further reading if you want to explore psychology in more depth.
David Myers Psichologija 2008 19.pdf
Psychology is the scientific study of human behavior and mental processes. It is a fascinating and diverse field that covers topics such as perception, memory, learning, motivation, emotion, personality, social interaction, mental health, and more. Psychology can help us understand ourselves and others better, as well as improve our well-being and quality of life.
Who is David Myers?
David G. Myers is one of the most influential and respected psychologists in the world. He has written over 20 books on various aspects of psychology, including textbooks, general audience books, and books on faith and spirituality. He has also published hundreds of articles in scientific journals and magazines. He is known for his clear and engaging writing style, his use of humor and anecdotes, his incorporation of cross-cultural perspectives, and his emphasis on critical thinking and scientific evidence.
What is Psichologija 2008 19.pdf?
Psichologija 2008 19.pdf is the Lithuanian translation of the ninth edition of Psychology, which was originally published in English in 2007 by McGraw-Hill. It is a comprehensive textbook that covers all the major topics and subfields of psychology in 15 parts and 55 chapters. It is intended for college students who are taking introductory courses in psychology, but it can also be read by anyone who wants to learn more about this fascinating subject.
Why is this book important for psychology students and enthusiasts?
This book is important for several reasons. First, it provides a comprehensive overview of the history, theories, methods, findings, and applications of psychology. It covers both classic and contemporary research, as well as controversial and ethical issues. It also integrates biological, cognitive, social, cultural, developmental, and clinical perspectives, showing how they complement and interact with each other. Second, it helps students develop critical thinking and scientific literacy skills. It teaches them how to ask and answer questions, how to evaluate evidence, how to avoid biases and fallacies, and how to communicate effectively. It also encourages them to apply psychological principles to their own lives and to the world around them. Third, it makes psychology interesting and relevant. It uses real-life examples, case studies, stories, quizzes, exercises, and interactive features to engage and motivate readers. It also incorporates humor, creativity, and diversity to make psychology fun and accessible.
Main features of the book
Structure and content
The book is divided into 15 parts, each consisting of several chapters. Each part focuses on a major area or theme of psychology, such as neuroscience, development, personality, or therapy. Each chapter begins with a set of learning objectives, a preview question, and an opening story. Then, it presents the main concepts, theories, and research findings in a clear and organized manner. Each chapter also includes several features that enhance the learning experience, such as:
Did You Know? These are boxes that provide interesting facts or trivia related to the topic.
Thinking Critically About... These are boxes that challenge readers to apply their critical thinking skills to evaluate claims or arguments.
Reflecting on... These are boxes that invite readers to reflect on their own experiences or opinions related to the topic.
Applying Psychology in Everyday Life These are boxes that show how psychological principles can be used to solve problems or improve outcomes in various domains.
Focus on Research These are boxes that describe specific studies or experiments that illustrate the methods or findings of psychology.
Cross-Cultural Perspectives These are boxes that highlight the similarities and differences between cultures or groups in terms of psychological phenomena.
Testing Your Understanding These are questions that test readers' comprehension and retention of the material.
Reviewing the Chapter This is a section that summarizes the main points and key terms of the chapter.
Thinking Critically With Psychological Science This is a section that provides exercises and activities that reinforce the critical thinking and scientific literacy skills.
The following table shows the titles and brief descriptions of each part and chapter of the book.
Part Title Chapters Description --- --- --- --- I Prologue: The history of psychology 1 This part introduces the definition, goals, and perspectives of psychology. It also traces the historical development of psychology from its pre-scientific roots to its modern branches. II Thinking critically with psychological science 2-4 This part teaches the basic concepts and methods of psychological research. It also discusses the importance of critical thinking, scientific attitude, ethical principles, and statistical reasoning in psychology. III Neuroscience and behavior 5-7 This part explores the biological basis of behavior and mental processes. It covers topics such as neural communication, brain structure and function, genetics and evolution, hormones and neurotransmitters, and the interaction between biology and environment. IV The nature and nurture of behavior 8-10 This part examines the role of both nature (genes) and nurture (environment) in shaping human behavior and traits. It covers topics such as behavioral genetics, epigenetics, evolutionary psychology, natural selection, culture, gender, and sexuality. V The developing person 11-13 This part studies the physical, cognitive, social, and emotional changes that occur throughout the human lifespan. It covers topics such as prenatal development, infancy, childhood, adolescence, adulthood, aging, death, and dying. Sensation and perception
How do we experience the world around us? How do we make sense of what we see, hear, touch, taste, and smell? These questions are related to the processes of sensation and perception, which are both essential for understanding and interacting with our environment.
What is the difference between sensation and perception?
Sensation and perception are two separate processes that are very closely related. Sensation is input about the physical world obtained by our sensory receptors, and perception is the process by which the brain selects, organizes, and interprets these sensations. In other words, senses are the physiological basis of perception .
For example, when you look at a flower, your eyes receive stimuli in the form of light waves that reflect from the flower. This is sensation. Your brain then processes this information and constructs a mental representation of the flower based on its shape, color, texture, smell, and so on. This is perception. Perception allows you to recognize the flower as a rose, to appreciate its beauty, or to associate it with a memory or an emotion.
What are the factors that influence sensation and perception?
Sensation and perception are not passive processes. They are influenced by many factors, such as attention, motivation, context, expectations, culture, and individual differences. Some of these factors are discussed below.
Attention is the process of focusing awareness on a specific stimulus or aspect of the environment. Attention can enhance or impair sensation and perception. For instance, if you pay attention to a faint sound or a dim light, you are more likely to detect it than if you ignore it. On the other hand, if you are distracted by another stimulus or task, you may miss some important information or make errors in perception. A classic example of this is the phenomenon of inattentional blindness, which occurs when people fail to notice an unexpected but salient stimulus in their visual field because they are focused on something else .
Motivation is the process that drives us to act or behave in certain ways. Motivation can also affect sensation and perception. For example, if you are hungry, you may be more sensitive to food-related stimuli, such as smells or images of food. Similarly, if you have a goal or a desire, you may perceive stimuli that are relevant or helpful for achieving that goal more positively or favorably than stimuli that are irrelevant or hindering .
Context is the situation or environment in which a stimulus occurs. Context can provide clues or cues that help us interpret sensory information. For example, if you see a word written in a certain font or color, you may perceive it differently depending on the context. The same word may appear as "BANANA" or "banana" depending on whether it is written in uppercase or lowercase letters. The same word may also convey different meanings depending on whether it is written in yellow or black ink .
if you expect to see a certain word in a sentence, you may read it as such even if it is misspelled or replaced by another word .
Culture is the set of beliefs, values, norms, and customs that shape the behavior and perception of a group of people. Culture can influence sensation and perception by affecting what we pay attention to, how we interpret stimuli, and how we express our perceptions. For example, different cultures may have different ways of categorizing colors, describing emotions, or perceiving depth .
Individual differences are the variations among people in terms of their physical characteristics, personality traits, abilities, preferences, and experiences. Individual differences can also influence sensation and perception by making us more or less sensitive to certain stimuli, more or less prone to certain biases or illusions, or more or less skilled at certain perceptual tasks. For example, some people may have better vision or hearing than others, some people may be more susceptible to optical illusions or subliminal messages than others, and some people may be better at recognizing faces or musical tones than others .
What are some examples of sensation and perception in everyday life?
Sensation and perception are involved in almost every aspect of our daily lives. Here are some examples of how they affect our behavior and cognition:
Driving a car requires us to use our senses of vision, hearing, and touch to monitor the road conditions, traffic signals, other vehicles, pedestrians, speedometer, GPS, horn, steering wheel, brake pedal, etc. It also requires us to use our perception to interpret these sensory inputs and make appropriate decisions and actions.
Listening to music involves our sense of hearing to detect the sound waves that are produced by musical instruments or voices. It also involves our perception to recognize the pitch, rhythm, melody, harmony, timbre, genre, mood, lyrics, etc. of the music.
Eating a meal engages our senses of taste, smell, touch, vision, and hearing to detect the flavor, aroma, texture, appearance, and sound of the food. It also involves our perception to identify the ingredients, quality, freshness, spiciness, temperature, etc. of the food.
themes, etc. It also relies on our perception to create emotions, expectations, and judgments based on the movie.
Reading a book depends on our sense of vision to recognize the letters and words on the page. It also depends on our perception to comprehend the meaning, context, and tone of the text. It also involves our imagination to create mental images and scenarios based on the text.
What are some examples of visual illusions?
Visual illusions are phenomena that occur when our perception does not match the physical reality of the stimulus. Visual illusions can be caused by various factors, such as misinterpretation of depth cues, distortion of angles or shapes, contrast of colors or brightness, ambiguity of figures or backgrounds, etc. Visual illusions can reveal how our brain processes visual information and how it can be fooled by certain patterns or arrangements. Here are some examples of visual illusions:
The Ponzo illusion is an example of how depth cues can affect our perception of size. In this illusion, two horizontal lines of equal length appear to be different sizes when they are placed between two converging lines that suggest perspective. The horizontal line that is closer to the converging point appears to be longer than the one that is farther away, because we interpret it as being more distant and therefore larger .
The Müller-Lyer illusion is an example of how angles and shapes can affect our perception of length. In this illusion, two vertical lines of equal length appear to be different lengths when they are attached to arrowheads that point inward or outward. The vertical line with inward-pointing arrowheads appears to be shorter than the one with outward-pointing arrowheads, because we tend to overestimate the length of the whole figure when the arrowheads extend beyond the line .
Rubin's vase is an example of how ambiguity can affect our perception of figure and ground. In this illusion, a black-and-white image can be perceived as either a vase or two faces facing each other, depending on which part we focus on as the figure and which part we ignore as the background. The image is ambiguous because it does not provide enough cues to distinguish between the two possible interpretations .
The Ames room illusion is an example of how context can affect our perception of size and shape. In this illusion, a distorted room with a trapezoidal shape creates an illusion of normality when viewed from a specific angle. When two people stand in different corners of the room, they appear to be drastically different in size, even though they are actually the same size .
The Kanizsa triangle is an example of how fiction can affect our perception of shape and contour. In this illusion, three circles with wedges cut out and three angles arranged in a triangular shape create an impression of a white triangle that does not actually exist. The brain fills in the missing information and creates a contour that outlines the triangle .
The Necker cube is an example of how perspective can affect our perception of depth and orientation. In this illusion, a simple wire-frame drawing of a cube can be perceived as either facing upward or downward, depending on which corner we assume is closer to us. The image is ambiguous because it does not provide enough cues to determine which corner is nearer or farther .
In this article, we have reviewed David Myers Psichologija 2008 19.pdf, a comprehensive textbook that covers all the major topics and subfields of psychology in 15 parts and 55 chapters. We have discussed its main features, strengths, and weaknesses, as well as some recommendations for further reading.
Summary of the main points
Here are some of the main points we have covered:
David Myers Psichologija 2008 19.pdf is a Lithuanian translation of the ninth edition of Psychology, a popular textbook written by David G. Myers, an American psychologist and professor at Hope College.
The book provides a comprehensive overview of the history, theories, methods, findings, and applications of psychology. It covers both classic and contemporary research, as well as controversial and ethical issues. It also integrates biological, cognitive, social, cultural, developmental, and clinical perspectives, showing how they complement and interact with each other.
The book helps students develop critical thinking and scientific literacy skills. It teaches them how to ask and answer questions, how to evaluate evidence, how to avoid biases and fallacies, and how to communicate effectively. It also encourages them to apply psychological principles to their own lives and to the world around them.
The book makes psychology interesting and relevant. It uses real-life examples, case studies, stories, quizzes, exercises, and interactive features to engage and motivate readers. It also incorporates humor, creativity, and diversity to make psychology fun and accessible.
The book is divided into 15 parts, each consisting of several chapters. Each part focuses on a major area or theme of psychology, such as neuroscience, development, personality, or therapy. Each chapter begins with a set of learning objectives, a preview question, and an opening story. Then, it presents the main concepts, theories, and research findings in a clear and organized manner. Each chapter also includes several features that enhance the learning experience.
its balance and objectivity, its integration and diversity, and its pedagogical and interactive features. Some of the weaknesses are its length and complexity, its occasional errors or inaccuracies, its outdated or missing information, and its cultural bias or insensitivity.
Recommendations for further reading
If you want to learn more about psychology after reading this book, here are some recommendations for further reading:
Exploring Psychology by David G. Myers and C. Nathan DeWall. This is a shorter and more concise version of Psychology, which covers the same topics but in less detail and with fewer features. It is suitable for students who prefer a more streamlined and simplified approach to psychology.
Psychology in Everyday Life by David G. Myers and C. Nathan DeWall. This is an even shorter and more accessible version of Psychology, which focuses on the most essential and relevant topics and applications of psychology for everyday life. It is suitable for students who want a brief and practical introduction to psychology.
Psychology: The Science of Mind and Behavior by Michael W. Passer and Ronald E. Smith. This is another comprehensive textbook that covers all the major topics and subfields of psychology in 16 parts and 58 chapters. It has a strong emphasis on scientific research, critical thinking, and real-world applications. It also has a wealth of features that enhance the learning experience.
Discovering Psychology by Don Hockenbury, Sandra E. Hockenbury, and Susan A. Nolan. This is a more contemporary and engaging textbook that covers all the major topics and subfields of psychology in 14 parts and 43 chapters. It has a strong emphasis on storytelling, diversity, and innovation. It also has a variety of features that stimu